lk~ mQNQ k#t@y~ awWw vw@g`w

p#rNQ lAk`@v| r#hR@N~ rjvr#n~@g~ pY{`n a`q`ym| m`r\gy vR@y~ m#NQk~ @vLq`my. mRwO htgn~n` s`gry q, m#NQk~ pwl~ a#wQ @r`~hN kn~q q (XWYp`q kn~q) ynR@vn~ {n gbd` @qkk~ sQAhl rjRt wQbR bv 9 @vnQ sQyv@s~ vQsR r`j@s~kr nm#wQ kvQy` pvsyQ.

XWY lAk`@v| qk~nt l#@bn KnQj sm|pw~ awO@rn~ m#NQk~ gl~ s[h` hQmQvn~@n~ iw` sRvQ@X~;W s~}`nykQ. vQ@X~;@yn~m bYsWly h#r#NR vQt lAk`v wrm| vQvQ{ vr\gvl m#NQk~ nQpqvnR lbn @vnw~ rtk~ @l`v @n`m#w. qQymn~wQ sm|bn~{@yn~ qkONR apQYk`v @l`v qrn pYsQq~{Qyt sm`n pYsQq~{Qyk~ m#NQk~ sm|bn~{@yn~ XWY lAk`v qryQ.

qEr`wWw@y~ ptn~ @mm qQvyQ@nn~ m#NQk~ awQ vQX`l pYm`Nyk~ nQpqvR bvt @w`rwOr# rFsk~ @ewQh`sQk v`r\w`vlQn~ l#@byQ. mQn~ mRl~m @ewQh`sQk @w`rwOr l#@bn~@n~ kQY.pR. 4 @vnQ sQyv@s~qW pmN x`rw@y~ vQsR @k_tQl&@g~ "ar\}X`s~wY" nm#wQ gYn~}@ynQ.

lAk`v m#NQk~ bhRl vX@yn~ upqQn qQvyQnk#yQ ehQ s[hn~ kr a#w. (@k_tQl& : ar\}X`s~wYy prQ. ;`m` X`s~wWY pQ. 83) kQY. v. 1 hQqW pmN lQyn lq @prQp~ls~ of~ q erQwQYyn~sQ yn gYn~}@yhQq, e~ b#v| qk~v` wQ@b|.  vtQn` m#NQk~ gl~ lb`g#nWm s[h` 7 @vnQ sQyv@s~qW lAk`vt p#mQNQ pr\sQy`nR @n_k` 35 k~ @p`tQcQlQ nm| vr`@y~qW vjY@b`~{Q nm#w~w` vQsQn~ qk~n` lq bv s[hn~ @vyQ.  cWn@y~ fQyRkWnhW vQ@q~XWy @vL[`m pQLQb[ prWk;k  c`c` jRk`v` vQsQn~ 10 vn sQyvs avs`n@y~qW lQyn lq v`r\w`vk lAk`@v| nQ;~p`qn awr @@vqRr\y, nQl~ rwO, v#nQ agn` m#NQk~ gl~ vr\g pQLQb[ @w`rwOr# qk~v` a#w.  lAk` xS@g`~l vQq&` sAs~. mh`, @k~. kOlrw~nm| pQt 9 : 1958) @m| h#r#NR vQt gWYsQ@y~ @s`lmn~ a{Qr`jy`@g~ r`j sx`vt pv` m#NQk~ lb` gw~@w~ lAk`@vn~ bv gWYk pRr`Ny pvsyQ. 2 vn sQyv@s~ m#q x`g@y~ pmN mQsr@y~ vQsR @t`lmQ lAk`@vn~ lb`gw~ pc|c, pdQyA h` nQl~ m#NQk~ g#n s[hn~ kr a#w. 

ihw q#k~vR @w`rwOr# anRv iw` a$w awWw@y~ sQtm lAk`v m#NQk~ nQpqvWm sm|bn~{@yn~ @l`~ pRr` pYsQq~{Qyt pw~v sQtQ bv @p@n~. e@hyQn~m vQ@q~XWy@y`~ lAk`v h#[Qn~vW@m|qW ey m#NQk~ qQvyQn#yQ yn vQr#q`vlQ@yn~ yRwO vQvQ{ nm| vlQn~ h#[Qn~vWmt psRbt @n`vRh. ar`bWn~, @jsQrtQ ul~ : y#k~tQ (rw~n q~vWp) ynR@vn~q pRr`N x`rwWy s`hQw&@y~, rw~nq~vWp nmQn~ q, gWYkyQn~, m#NQk~ qQvyQn yn ar#wQn~ yRwO  w#@pY`~@b|n~ ynR@vn~ q hQ&RAw~s`A kQY.v. 629 p`d|cR, @n`@h`w~ "rw~n qQvyQn" @lsQn~ q, lAk`v h[En~vn lqW.

kQY.pR. 161:137 qk~v` lAk`@v| rj kL qEtRg#mRNR mh rjR vQsQn~ r#vn~m#lQ s$y s$qvW@m| sQq~{Qy vQs~wr kQrW@m|qW mh`vAXy,

pRr@yn~ gQNQ@k`n @qs swr @y`qEnk~ qEr smn~ v#v| nm| gm @b`@h`~ m#NQk~ upn~n#yQ q, egm| v#s~@s`~ upRl~, kOr#vQn~q gl~ wlQykQn~ @gnvRw~ rjRt s#lkL`hR y#yQ q qk~v` a#w. (mh`vAXy 28 prQ. g`}` 18:19 pQt 304)

smn~ v#v| gm, anRr`{pRryt nRqEr# s~}`nyk~ vR @hyQn~ ey mhv#lQ gAM` nQm|ny a`XQYw a#Lh#r pY@q~Xy q, n#w~nm| smn~ @qvQyn~@g~ advQy @ls g#@nn @mkl pv` bhRl @ls m#NQk~ nQpqvnR lbn rw~npRr pY@q~Xy q#yQ p#h#qQlQ n#w.

awWw@y~ sQtm lAk`@v| m#NQk~ nQpqvWm awQn~ awQXyQn~m pYsQq~{Qyt pw~ pY@q~Xy vn~@n~ rw~npRryyQ. ey sbrgmR pL`wt ayw~ pY@q~XykQ. sbrgmRv yn~n nQr\m`Ny vR@y~ m#NQk~ nQs` b#v| @k`d|rQn~tn~ mhw`@g~ aqhsy. kQrQa#l~@l~ Z`NwQlk hQmQp`@N`~, sbrgmRv yn~n pYxvy vR@y~ gWYk @l~KkyQn~ @g~ sQw~gw~ m#NQk~ yn ar#w @qn  sfQ : rs~  yn gWYk vcny mRl~ vW@mn#yQ pvswQ. (sbrgmRv qXr\N : kQ. Z`NwQlk hQmQ 1967 pQ. 5) em nQs` rw~npRr pY@q~X@yn~ qEr`wWw@y~ sQtm m#NQk~ lb`@gn a#w.

kQY. pR. 6 @vnQ sQyv@s~ qW smn~ @qvQ[En~ XWYp`q kn~@q~ v`sy kL bv mh`vAXy qk~vyQ. (mv. 1 prQ. 33 g`} pQt 5) a#w#m| vQt smn~ v#v| gm smn~ @qvQyn~ v`sy kL advQy wOL pQhQtQ gmk~ vn~ntw~ pRUvn. sW. db|. nQkOls~ mhw` pvsn prQqQ @m| pY@q~X@yn~ l#bRNR pRr`Nwm XQl` @l~KNy qs @vnQ sQyvst pmN ayw~ vRvk~ b#vQn~ @m| pY@q~X@y~ pRr`N k`l@y~qW, mQnQsRn~ pqQAcQv sQtQ bvk~ iwQh`s@yn~ @n`@p@nn bv pYk`X kryQ.  e@hw~ mhvAXyt anRv kQY. pR. 161:131 k`@l~qW smn~w kSt@y~ nvsWyk~ xQk;Rn~ v`sy kr a#w. (mv. 5 prQ. pQ. 45, 50:83) wvq 7 @vnQ sQyv@s~qW vjY@b`~{Q XWY p`qy v[Qn~nt gQy bvq, XWYp`q kn~q asl ags~wQ @k`~vQlk~ vR bvq, nv @vnQ sQyvst pmN ayw~ sAs~k^w n`t& 2 k~ vn b`lr`m`yny h` anr\Gr`Gv@y~ s[hn~vWm v#qgw~y.  a`qm|@g~ p`sLkON smnl kn~@q~ pQhQt` wQ@b|y yn vQX~v`sy nv@vnQ sQyvs vn vQt mRs~lQm|vr#n~ wOL a#wQ vW wQbWmw~ e~ k`ly vn vQt ovRn~ vn~qn`v s[h` smnl kn~q wrNy kL bvw~ s[hn~ @vyQ. (ihw k^wQy pQt. 20) wvq lAk`@v| mRl~ a`r\y jn`v`s @qs b#lR vQt e~v`yQn~ pY{`n jn`v`s @qkk~ pQhQt` wQbR@N~ q @m| pY@q~X@yn~ gl` bsQn pY{`n gAM` @qkk~ a`XY@ynQ. k#lNQ gM mRl~@k`t k#lNQ r`j&yw~, vL@v| gM mRl~ @k`t@gn @r`~hN r`j&yw~y. @mm r`j&q~v@yhQm v`sy kL mQnQsRn~ gM os~@s~ rt ax&n~wryt sAkYmNy @n`vR@y~ y#yQ sQwQy @n`@h~. e~ anRv qh@vnQ sQyvst klQn~ pv` rw~npRr pY@q~Xy jnXSn& pY@q~Xyk#yQ sQwQy @n`h#k. awWw@y~qW  sbr ynR@vn~ h[En~vn lq mQnQsRn~@gn~ sbrgmRv pYxvy vR bvt mwyk~q pvwW.

@m| mnR;&yQn~ pRlQn~qyQn~ @mn~ v#qQ mnR;& vr\gyk~ bv kQywQ. (lAk` iwQh`sy pRvr\ x`gy @hvw~ qBqQv smy jW. sW. m#n~qQs~ 1961 pQ. 6)

p#rNQ lAk`@v| r#hR@N~ rjvr#n~@g~ pY{`n a`q`ym| m`r\gy vR@y~ m#NQk~ @vLq`my. mRwO htgn~n` s`gry q, m#NQk~ pwl~ a#wQ @r`~hN kn~q q (XWYp`qkn~q) ynR@vn~ {n gbd` @qkk~ sQAhl rjRt wQbR bv 9 @vnQ sQyv@s~ vQsR r`j@s~kr nm#wQ kvQy` pvsyQ. (b`lr`m`yny : 111aAky 41 X~@l`~) @r`~hN kn~q ynR XWYp`q kn~q @ls mh`c`r\y prNvQw`n XSrWn~ qk~vn mwy pQLQgw h#kQ nm| ehQ qWr\G k`lyk~ wOL @m| kr\m`n~wy pvwQn~nt a#w#yQ sQwQy h#k.  enm| @r`~hN jnpqy mRlQn~m pQhQtRvn lq~@q~ pAdRv`s@q~v rj qvs y#yQ mh`vAXy qk~v` wQbWmyQ. (mv. 1 prQ. 10 g`}`v pQt 109)

enmRw~ @mm r`j& pQLQb[ @w`rwOr# l#@bn~@n~ kQY. pR. @qvn sQyv@s~qW pmN m`gm a`{Qpw& pQhQtvR mhn`m rjR@gn~ psRvy. vQ@X~;@yn~m @vL[En~ ht bthQr h` qkONR n#v| @w`tRvlt p#mQNWmt mM@pn~vnR l#bR@v| qkONR k[Ekr@yn~ l#bRNR angQ m`NQk&@y`~y. kQY.v. 950 qW vQsR sQr` fQhQ abRXQd| al~hs`n~ nm#w~w` rk~w vr\N, k`;`y vr~N vlQn~ yRwO m#NQk~ @srn~dQb| k[Ekr@yn~ lb`gw~ bv kQy` a#w.

awWw@y~qW m#NQk~ g#rW@m| ayQwQy rjwOm` swO vQy. mQlk~ @gv` m#NQk~ g#rW@m| bly pRq~glyQn~t lb` gw h#kQ vRvw~, ek~wr` br pYm`Nykt vd` v#dQ m#NQk~ sQyl~l ayQwQkr g#nW@m| bly rjR swO vQy.

kQY. v. 5 vn sQyv@s~qW m#NQk~ vlQn~ qh@yn~ wOnk 310 bq~qk~ rjR t ayw~ vR b#v| f`hQyn~ kQyyQ (f`hQyn~@g~ @q~X`tn v`r\w`v mh blgl~@l~ pQ. 92) 10 @vnQ sQyv@s~qW rjR @vnR@vn~ @m| m#NQk~ gl~ lb` g#nWm pQNQs r`j pRr#;yn~ pw~krnR l#bR bvw~, pnm| 100 k~ vtQn` rwO k#t sQyl~l e~ s[h` mQlqW @gvn sRl~w`n~t ayQwQvn bvw~, ibn~ btRt` @g~ v`r\w`@v| s[hn~ @vyQ.  "vr\@w~m`" mWt vd` svQs~wrv @m| pQLQb[v kr#NR qk~vyQ. @v@Ln~[kOt m#NQk~ g#rWmt vRvmn` nm| ohR rjR smg kw` bs~ kr avsr prQqQ oktQ 5 k~qW uvmn` bQm| @k`ts~ lb`gw yRwOy. e~w~ e~ h#r#NR vQt rjR @vnR@vn~ pRr#;ykO ew#n h#m vQtm sQtQyQ. k#rtQ 10 kt vd` vtQn` m#NQk~ gl~ l#bRN@h`w~ e~v` rjRtq anQk~v` @v@Ln~[`tq ayQwQ @v|. (lE@d`v|@k` vr\@w~m`@g~ sAc`r : h#k~lEyQd| pQ. 189:193)

kQY.v. 1153:1186 qW 1 @vnQ pr`kYmb`hR rj qk~;QN @q~X@y~ smnL kn~@q~ sQt bs~n`hQrt mRhRq qk~v` kl`p@y~ wQ@bn m#NQk~ a`kr s~}`n a`rk~;` kr wQbR bvw~ e~ s[h` "an~wrAg{Rr" ynR@vn~ vQ@X~; {Rryk~q a#wQ kL bvw~, s[hn~ @v|. (mv: @p`l~vw~@w~ bRq~{qw~w hQmQ. sAs~( 68 prQ. 6 @vnQ g`}`v) @k_tQl&@g~ ar\} X`s~wY@y~ rj@y~ uss~ nQl{`rWn~ s[hn~ vn w#n "a`kr`{&]" @knkO g#n s[hn~ vn~@n~ ev#nQ wnwOrk~ vQy h#kQy. lAk`@v| m#NQk~ kr\m`n~wy tQ@nk~ vQ@X~;@yn~m sAvQ{`n`w~mk s~vr$pykQn~ sks~ vR@y~ @m| k`l@y~ sQt b#v| sQwQy h#k.

qB@qNQ k`lQk`l s`hQw& sr\vZ pN~dQw pr`kYmb`hR rjR@g~ a`r\y k`m@q~v a#m#wQ rjRt m#NQk~ lb`g#nWm s[h` mQnQsRn~ 700 k~ smg gQy bvw~, smn~ @qvQyn~t vR b`ryk~ anRv @mkl qk~nt a#wQ rw~npRr mh smn~ @q~v`ly krvR bvw~ s[hn~ @vyQ.  II @vnQ pr`kYmb`hR sQt 5 @vnQ bRv@nkb`hR qk~v` rjvr#n~ asnWp vW@m|qW snWp krv` g#nWm s[h` @mn~m m#NQk~ g#rWm s[h`q b`rvR b#v| @k`b|b$kdRv sn~n@shQ s[hn~v a#w. @m| h#r#NR vQt @k`~tQ@tQ rjvr#n~ q m#NQk~ g#rWm s[h` b`rvR b#v| s[hn~v a#w.

m#NQk~ pRr`wn@y~ sQtm @qvQyn~ vQsQn~ @qnR lbn @qyk~ @lst slknR l#bWy. mWt amwrv m#NQk~ pwl~ k#pW@m|qW bhQrvy` @hvw~ rw~n kdvry` pQqWmt mQnQsRn~ pRr#qEv a#w~@w~ @m`hR xSmQyt a{QpwQ @qvQy` y#yQ slk`@gny. bhQrvy` anRr`{pRr sm@y~ sQt p#v@wn nmRqE, ohR g#n v#dQ s#lkQl~lk~ qk~vn~nt vR@y~ mhnRvr yRg@y~qW b#v| @p@n~.

p#rFNQ lAk`@v| mQnQsRn~@g~ rk~;`vn~ awO@rn~ @g`vQw#n, @v@L[`m h#r#NR vQt @vnw~ rk~;`q vQy.

ek~ g^hpwQ@yk~ m#NQk~ kpn~nkOv sQtQ b#v| s[hn~ @vyQ.  @k_tQl&@g~ ar\} X`s~wYyt anRv @m`hR XOqY gNyt v#@tn nmRw~ (@k_. a.X`. prQ. a`r\. ;&m` X`s~wYW pQ. 67) ovRnt @g`vWn~, @v@L[En~t h` sm`n vR sm`j ww~w~vyk~ ekl hQmQvn~nt a#wQ b#v| @p@n~. @m| h#@rn~nt m#NQk~ pQc|cW@mn~ opqm` g#nWmt h#kQ a`k`ryk~ pQLQb[v kv|sQUmQN kOsq`v@w~ s[hn~ @v|. (kv|sQUmQN : kOsq`vw 6 vn sr\gy kl~plw` XOq~{Qy) kYQ.pR. 5 @vnQ sQt kQQY.pR. 4 @vnQ sQyvs~ k`lyt ayw~ XQl` @l~Knvl "mNQk`r" (m#NQk~ @v@Ln~[n~) sQtQ bvw~, "mNQk`rg`m" yn vcnvlQn~ ovRn~ v`sy kL gm| g#nw~ s[hn~ @vyQ.

m#NQk~ @v@L[`m s[h` kYQ.pR. 4 @vnQ sQyvs~vl sQtm in~qQy`@v| @v@L[ a`{Qpw&y lb`@gn sQtQ ar`bQn~ kYm@yn~ @mrtt sAkYmNy vW 11 @vnQ sQyvs qk~v` @mrt @v@L[ a`{Qpw& al~l` gn~n` lqW. @m`vRn~ aq qk~v`m qQvyQ@n~ m#NQk~ @v@L[`m al~l`@gn sQtQn blvw~ jn @k`tskQ. @m`vRn~ rw~npRr pY@q~Xyt p#mQNQ@y~ 9 @vnQ sQyvs wrm| vR k`lyk sQt b#v| ihwqW s[hn~ vQy.

p#rFNQ sQAhl rjRn~ vQsQn~ m#NQk~ @m|rvWm s[h` sRr\yy`t s$@hn k`lyk~ qWm pQNQs avRr#qE 12 kt vrk~ pmNk~ m#NQk~ g#rWm nQym @k`t wQbR bv k~@v|@r`~s~ pvsyQ. (vQ@q~XWyn~ qEtR pRr`N lAk`v : dW.pW. @p`n~nm|@pr#m : 1961 a@g`~. pQ. 11) p#rFNQ yRgvlqW @mn~m m$w yRgvlqWq enm| p^wOgWsQ, ln~@q~sQ, iAgYWsQ k`lvlqW sbrgmR@v| m#NQk~ a`k`rvlQn~ bqE lb`gw~ bv s[hn~ @vyQ. ihw s[hn~ vQs~wr anRv p#rFNQ sQAhl rjvr#n~ aw wQbR b#vQn~ kr\m`n~wy sAvQ{`ny vW wQbR a`k`ry p#h#qQlQ @vyQ.

ihw q#k~vR prQqQ 9 @vnQ sQyv@shQ vQsR al~hs`n~, @srn~dQb| k[E v#tQ@y~ m#NQk~ a`kr @mn~ h`r`gnR lbn b#v| s[hn~ kr a#ww~ mRl~ yRg@y~ h`rnR l#bR m#NQk~ a`kr kvr a`k`rvWq#yQ q#ngw @n`h#k. nmRw~ mQnQsRn~ mRl~k`@l~ sQtm a`kr kr\m`n~wy pQLQb[v q#n sQtQ bv @p@nn~nt a#w. pY`g~ @ewQh`sQk yRg@y~qW @m| qQvyQ@n~ mQnQsRn~ ykd k#NWmt avX& yps~ @p`@L`@vn~ hr`gw~ bvt s`k~;Q k#nWm|vlqW @hLQvW wQ@bn @hyQn~ (lAk` jnw`v a`c`r\y nn~q@q~v vQ@:@s~kr : 1949 pQt 168) awWw@y~ sQtm m#NQk~ pwl~ h`r` sks~ krgn~nt a#w#yQ anRm`n kL h#kQy. 1816 : 1820 qW wrm lAk`@v| vQsR "@d|vQ"nm#w~w` m#NQk~ a#w#yQ sQ@wn w#n~vl adQ 3 sQt adQ 10 qk~v` g#BRr# pwl~ h`rn lq b#v| qEtR bv pvsyQ. (@d|vQ qEtR lAk`v : mh`c`r\y @wn~n@k`~n~ vQml`nn~q pQt 134)nmRw~ ekl q#n~ @mn~ adQ 100:200 g#BRr# pwl~ h#rW@m| w`k~;Ny @n`wQ@bn~nt a#w.)

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a$w awWw@y~qW rw~npRr pY@q~Xyt m#NQk~ v#s~sk~ v#tR@N~ y#yQ jnXY#wQ@y~ eyQ. "mRk~kr#" nm#wQ jn @k`ts m#NQk~ lb`g#nWm s[h` mRU rw~npRr qQs~wYQk~kym awWw@y~qW h`rnR lq#yQ wvw~ jnpYv`qykQ. ovRn~ p#mQN a#w~@w~ sq~{`wQs~s rjR@g~ k`l@y~qWy. (kQQY.pR. 137 qWy) m#NQk~ g#rWm s[h` ovRn~ "@k`rs~" nm#wQ m#tQ b[En~ x`vQw kL bvw~, pwl~ vQX`l vLk a`k`ryt @p`Lv wOLt kOd`vn @s~ pdQ wb` kpn lq#yQ em pY@q~Xvl @v@sn v@y`~v^q~{ jnw`v pvswQ. wvq ovRn~ a`r#nRl~ (We~r W~ccysr#Q: h` @@v@r`~dQ (k~e.Q $h#Q: v#nQ m#NQk~ gl~ wOL pnRvn~ qMlnR l#@b| y#yQ sQw` e~v` pwl~ wOLt qm` gQy bvq kQynR l#@b|.

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